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Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor, Associate
Professor of the Ukrainian Studies and General Language training Department,
Zaporizhzhya National Technical University
NEW TRENDS IN THE CATEGORY OF COLORS IN THE PROFESSIONAL DOMAINS
The specifics of marking the colors in the Ukrainian terminology is a new objective of the linguistic studies. In recent decades this topic has found its practical relevance in the such young domains as the interior design, the industrial, the landscape, the computer design, and the phytodesign etc.
To the main group of primary colors designers have traditionally included the so-called colorless (achromatic) ones, that are marked with the opposite adjectives such as white (white surface reflects 80% of the incident light), and black (black surface reflects only 3% of the incident light), and adjectival mezzanine - gray color and the colors marked with adjectives such as red, blue, yellow (they are primary; all the other colors are derivatives, including green, orange, and purple). Among the specific colors are those which are related to the specific subjects.
Since the names of colors in the Ukrainian language are mostly adjectives by its linguistic nature, in the terminological dictionary of the fine arts, architecture, and design they are not separate terms, but components of the terminological combinations, the linguistic model of which is "adjective + noun": dark brown, pastel painting, red cobalt and others.
The colour wheel of the web design field deserves a special attention of researchers. Designers choose colours that strongly influence the reaction of users accurately combining colours for commercial and advertising purposes. The colours fall into three groups depending on their function: contrasting colours (classic contrasting duet is black and white); complementary colours (which accentuate each other, for example, purple is a blue complemented with pink); resonant colours – the use of warm (red, yellow, orange) and cold colours (green, blue, violet).
Designers know that red colour stimulates, it is very energetic, always attracts attention, and warns about something important. The role of yellow colour in the interior is to encourage to work, of orange colour is to help to overcome fear, of brown and green is to calm, and of blue is to decrease the appetite. Over the last years, the names of colours have obtained actuality in the interior design due to their association with the objects, things, plants, flowers, etc. which have this colour naturally. For example, eggplant colour, lilac colour (light-violet), amber, pomegranate (rich red), coralline, cypress (noble green), raspberry-red, mint colour, olive, sand colour, grass colour, cinnamon colour, saffron colour, chocolate colour, etc.
Modern designers are making active use of colours which are denominated with uninflected adjectives borrowed into the Ukrainian language from other European languages. Thus, the names of colours except for the well-known khaki (brawn-green), electric blue (rich blue), terracotta (ruddy), which are expressed with indeclinable affixless borrowed adjectives, were enlarged with marengo – blue&black with gray tinge (the name appeared in remembrance of Napoleon’s battle of Marengo in 1800, where was a local dark grey fabric production), bluish dark-red, cardinal (dark-red as cardinal’s mantle colour), crushed strawberry colour with pink and lilac tinge etc.
Uninflectability of these adjectives in modern Ukrainian language is their permanent feature. These adjectives can sometimes serve as a noun in texts, i.e. be substantivized (noble claret, delicate beige), but always or usually they have a postposition after the noun in the terminological word combinations (for example, колір індиго), although in Ukrainian and other Slavonic languages adjectives are used in preposition, i.e. before the noun. The postposition of adjectives in the Ukrainian language, as professors R. Vykhovanez, K. Horodenska, V. Horpynych, A. Zahnitko, Y. Karpylovska, N. Klymenko state, indicates analytic features which are typical of English and French languages where adjectives have no flections. English language influences in such a way: analytic adjectives have no formal features of adjective and serve as incoordinated modifiers being adjusted to the noun in the postposition in professional texts.
To sum up, the distinctive feature of the end of the 20th – beginning of the 21st century is the functioning (among the adjectives denoting colours) of the separate and actively enlarging group which denotes colours due to their association with the natural phenomena, plants, flowers, minerals, etc. They are completely convenient for the fast understanding of the essence of a colour which otherwise should be denominated with too complex adjectives (of three or four colours); moreover, they function with parallel synonyms or alternate names.
The modern colour system in Ukrainian interior design field terminology is open (neologisms appear), dynamic (names of colours disappear and obsolete names of colours are used as archaisms), heterogeneous by its etymologic nature, functionally divergent, semantically determined with both various external factors and established national word formation paradigm.
This study was carried out within the academic research, managed by the author of the research "Dynamics of the industrial terminology in the domains of their fixation and operation" in which students have participated (Bahnyuk S., Dosanova A., Skiba I.).
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