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PhD, associate professor
National aviation university
FEATURES OF UKRAINIAN AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEM
Air transport is the least accessible transport mode in Ukraine. There are about 0.15 air trips per one passenger (aviation movability or mobility coefficient), other words every seventh travels by air. However, there is a perception that only 2% of the population use air transport services. That means that the same passengers fly, but several times a year.
For comparison, in the USA this coefficient is equal to 2. In EU countries, there is, on average about 1.7 flights per one person annually. It is 10 times more than in Ukraine. One of the main reasons of low aviation mobility in Ukraine is a high ticket price. Even average tariff on domestic routes of Ukraine is commensurate with the minimum standard of living of Ukrainian citizens. While in the USA, for example, the cost of one average domestic round trip does not exceed the 5% of average income, taking into account that distance of domestic flights in USA is longer than in Ukraine.
Air transportation is not referred to essential goods, so it can be easily replaced by other transport modes. Thus differed demand is formed, conversely, effective demand contributes to air transportation development.
Another feature of an air transport system is the presence of unnatural monopoly , Ukraine International Airlines (UIA) is a monopoly in an air transportation market. In the first semester of 2016 its share of passenger flow in Ukrainian market reached 77% and the number of passenger transported - 2.5 million people. UIA serves 66 regular destinations and 7 of them are domestic.
The Ukraine International Airlines' fleet consists of 39 aircraft, the average age of the fleet is 13 years. It is the newest aircraft fleet among Ukrainian airlines. After «Wizz Air» left Ukrainian market, there are no real competitors to UIA.
The existence of particular unnatural monopoly has a negative influence/impact on the quality of passenger service, which is constantly declining, and on the costs of transportation, that are unreasonably high with the comparison to the average income of Ukrainian people.
Another feature of Ukraine air transport system is: most part of air transportations is concentrated in Boryspil International Airport, it is 68% of market share. For the first half of 2016 air passenger flow of Boryspil International Airport comprised 3.64 million people and 59 destinations. Also, this airport is the only air transport node which approaches to the status of «hub». Airport closely cooperates with its basic airline - Ukraine International Аirlines. The fact of cooperation of the hub airport and the basic airline is considered to be normal and even desired for the worldwide air transport systems (aviation enterprises contribute to the development of each other), but considering the Ukrainian market this cooperation contributes to enhance of monopoly in air transportation branch.
All above-mentioned features are related to passenger air transportation market, which is different from cargo air transportation market. The air transportation share is extremely less, compared with other transport modes.
Most of the air cargo flows are carried out by charter flights of Ukrainian airlines in other countries within the UN humanitarian and peacekeeping missions and also according to the contracts and agreements with other contractors .
An air cargo hub does not exist in Ukraine. That results in cargo, intended for Ukraine and its eastern neighbors is delivered to the Dutch airports and then transported by automobile transport. A strong correlation between volumes of transportation and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was revealed when defined the relation between air passenger transportation development and social and economic factors . Cargo transportation by Ukrainian airlines does not depend on GDP or other social and economic factors, because of utilization of cargo airlines outside Ukraine.
Generally, the Ukrainian air transport system requires further development of transit potential and diminishing of monopolization processes influence, which will enhance the development of national economy.
1. Lele M. Milind. Monopoly Rules. How to Find, Capture and Control the Most Lucrative Markets in Any Business [Text] / Milind M. Lele. – New York: Crown Business, 2005. – 224 p.
2. Марінцева К.В. Наукові основи та методи забезпечення ефективного функціонування авіатранспортних систем: монографія [Текст] / К.В.Марінцева. – К.: НАУ, 2014. – 504 с.
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