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Candidate of Agrarian and Ecological Sciences,
Doctoral of Poltava State Agrarian Academy
Candidate of Agrarian and Ecological Sciences,
Zhytomyr National Agrarian and Ecological University
THE IMPACT OF BIOLAN ON PRODUCTIVITY OF CROP ROTATION AT DIFFERENT FERTILIZATION SYSTEMS
In the conditions of agricultural recession the number of organic and mineral fertilizers reduced dramatically. This affects the soil fertility. Therefore, an alternative should be a system of farming on the biological basis which would contribute to the productivity of crops and agro-ecosystem stability in general .
In this regard, plant remains is an important factor in shaping humus containing sufficient are topsoil, at the shortage of manure. Entry of organic matter in the soil helps earning by-products of crops and especially straw. Besides, cheap and effective way to increase soil fertility is green manure, mineralization of which provides stable yields of major crops .
Rich in nitrogen mass of stubbly green fertilizers that is in the soil with straw, compensates for the lack of nitrogen in the straw and leads to high efficiency combination of these two types of organic fertilizers. All the actions taken against the background of mineral fertilizer can provide the expected effect in the overall population, in which soil rotation plays a bridging role .
Innovative directions in modern agriculture is the use of plant growth stimulators, which in small doses capable to specifically regulate important processes of plant growth and development, and as a result, the value of root and stubble residues [5, 7].
Vegetable crops remains are the important factor of influence on the content of organic matter and nitrogen in the soil. Their number and quality play an important role in humus formation and transformation of nitrogen in the soil, are a source of energy and nutrients for many soil microorganisms .
Research has established that the increase of productivity of primary products of crop stubble is accompanied with an increase in the number and root residues that remain in farmland enriching soil organic matter.
Additional revenues of vegetable residues and incorporation of organic fertilizer in the upper soil affects the efficiency of humification and redistribution of humus in soil profile .
Number of root and stubble residues entering the soil depends on many factors and especially on the varietal characteristics of culture, soil and climatic conditions, yields and agricultural practices and activities [1, 8].
The study was conducted in a stationary experimental field of Zhytomyr National Agrarian and Ecological University (V. Gorbasha village, Cherniakhivskyi district, Zhytomyr region). The ground is light gray forest on sandy loess loam that was underplayed with fluvioglacial water-glacial rocks.
In systems of fertilizing crops was provided compensation of anthropogenic batteries through the use of non-tradable production. Fertilizers were brought under cultivation basic (superphosphate, potassium salt) and during pre-sowing cultivation (ammonium nitrate).
Prolonged use of soils in agricultural production, particularly in climatic zone Ukrainian Polissya, accompanied by a significant worsening of their condition and agricultural and ecological intensification of different types of degradation processes. At the same time, we noticed the decrease in the protective properties of the plant, causing it to weaken and increased sensitivity to various factors.
One of the innovative trends of modern agriculture is the use of plant growth stimulators that are capable of low doses specifically regulate important genetically determined growth and development of plants.
Stimulators of plant growth increase plant resistance to adverse environmental factors such as high and low temperatures, lack of moisture, phytotoxic effects of pesticides, affection by diseases and damage by pests.
Dynamics of chlorophyll concentration ratio in leaves of plants in variants of fertilization was the same regardless of culture. So, the coefficient of chlorophyll in the variant, where organic fertilizers were inserted against the background of moderate mineral nutrition was the greatest. It should be pointed out that in the version without fertilizer compared to alternative systems of fertilization, were organic and mineral fertilizers were introduced, the figure was lower in 1-1.5 times.
The rate of production of chlorophyll in plants depends on the conditions of climate and plant nutrition. We found that the use of fertilizers and regulator BIOLAN causes increased content of photosynthetic pigments, which indicates improving conditions of plants nutrition. So after processing plants with BIOLAN within 10-14 days, chlorophyll concentration ratio was increased by an average of 2-8%.
The best effect of the use of BIOLAN observed in the variant where were made mineral and organic fertilizers.
Stubble and root remains are an indicator of accumulation of organic matter in the soil. The largest number was in the variant, in which were made both organic and mineral fertilizers. BIOLAN increased root growth and accumulation of residues depending on the version by 2-4%, 5-8%.
Comparison of weight of root stubble residues and productive part of the harvest give reason to conclude that the growth of the latter leads to an increase in the number of plant residues after harvesting. This dependence is observed in all crop rotations.
This proves that the use of plant growth regulators BIOLAN for cultivation of crop rotation is a very effective measure from the environmental and economic point of view. However, the regulator acts as complex to stimulate growth and development, quality and value of crop and crop rotation resistance to environmental factors during the growing season.
It should be noted that the biological product not only affects the physiological processes that take place in plants, but also stimulates the accumulation of carbon in the soil by increasing the number and weight of root and stubble residues. The positive result is the increase of stability of soil rotation to environmental and anthropogenic load and balance of agro-ecosystem as a whole.
Conclusions: Effectiveness of BIOLAN is best while using a fertilizer by-products (with compensation of N10 per 1 ton of straw), green manure, gleet, fertilizers. Application of BIOLAN improves crop stubble and root accumulation of residues in soil and increases chlorophyll content in plants. Yields of crops are adjustable by means of favorable combination of system of fertilization and growth stimulator BIOLAN.
List of references
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