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candidate of economic sciences,
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF SEED PRODUCTION SYSTEM OILSEEDS IN MODERN CONDITIONS
In practice, it is proved that the yield increase due to the introduction of new varieties and hybrids of oilseed crops is 30 percent or more. In this regard, the main tasks breeding and seed industry of oil crops should be based on the creation and introduction of varieties and hybrids with high potential productivity and adaptability to the natural soil and growing conditions. Another important for consumers seed remains resistance of new varieties to diseases and pests, as well as their manufacturability. It is important, that the selection has evolved and towards the creation of varieties with different terms of vegetation, to create the so-called "assembly line" of growing sunflowers, rapeseed, soybean. With proper selection of crops it allows to minimize the risks of their growing and reduce losses harvest.
In order to organize the process of accelerated replacement of varieties and hybrids of oilseed crops is necessary to create on the basis of the regions of Ukraine is regional centers of seed, which should include 1-2 seed farms in each district. This will not only carry out an accelerated replacement of varieties and hybrids of oilseed crops but also expand the range of products of seed oil crops.
In the seed farms need to adjust the crop rotation system so as, to provide production optimal volume of elite and a reproduction seeds, as well of hybrids of the first generation, which is necessary to cover the needs of the farms in district. This structure acreage should provide a spatial or temporal isolation of seed crops of oilseeds, especially rapeseed and sunflower, in order to prevent cross-pollination and guarantee seed production of high quality. The experts of seeds industry should take into account a varietal composition of the testes to for expand the range of oilseeds.
A prerequisite of successful agricultural production is the creation of insurance funds of seeds, to cover the demand for seeds in full. In selection institutions - is the creation stocks nursery seeds and original seeds, in seed farms - super-elite, elite and parental forms of hybrids, in other farms - seeds 1 reproduction and hybrids 1 generation. Formation of the insurance funds of seeds allows minimizing risks in case of total or partial loss of crops, to ensure the stability and reliability of the seed market of oilseeds. The assortments of seeds has to be represented by a set of varieties and hybrids, interchangeable on the criterion of zoning in particular areas of cultivation, as well as providing optimum formation of high yield and plant resistance to pests and diseases. It should develop a mechanism the exchange and supplies of seeds and hybrids of oilseed crops.
In view of the difficult financial situation, seed producers can not invest in updating material-technical base, especially cleaning and etching machines. The lack of modernization and renewal of equipment directly affects the quality of the final product and reduces its level of competitiveness in the market of oilseeds. Often these seeds remain unclaimed and after the loss of quality indicators (germination) transforms into marketable products.
In the current market conditions, breeding seed oil crops should be developed under the scheme: breeding center - seed farm - agricultural producers. In this scheme, the seed farm should act solely as an intermediary, and the farmer - as a customer. Under such conditions, the market of seed products will develop dynamically.
|Категорія: Секція_5_Економічні науки | Додав: Admin (15.12.2015)|
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