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candidate of economic sciences,
Head of sector economic research
National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine,
ANALYSIS PRODUCTION MAIN OIL CROPS IN THE STEPPE ZONE UKRAINE
Over the last decade oil crops are among the most profitable crops. The main factors in their favor is price, stable demand for commodity products, developed infrastructure, established sales trends. Production of oilseeds in the 2013-2014 in steppe zone in Ukraine decreased by 1.2 mln. tons, or by 14% (from 8.3 to 7.1 mln. tons) by reducing the production of sunflower on 1.1 million. tons, or by 16% (from 6.9 to 5.8 mln. tons) and rapeseed - by 82.8 ths. tons, or by 10.5% (from 785 to 702 ths. tons).
Dynamics of production of soybeans was positive - an increase of 30.8 thousand. tons, or 5.3% (from 585 to 615.9 ths. tons). The main reasons are, firstly, the reduction of the area under sunflower by 54 thousand. ha, or on 1.5% (from 3.6 to 3.5 mln. ha) and rapeseed by 24.7 thousand. ha, or on 6.3% (from 390 to 365.4 thousand. ha), and secondly, the decline in yield of sunflower with 18.4 c/ha to 16.3 c/ha, soybean - from 18.1 to 18 c/ha.
The average level of productivity of oilseeds in the steppe zone fell last year from 18.6 c/ha to 17.9 c/ha. The highest yield recorded by rapeseed - 19.4 c/ha.
Note that the average yields of oilseeds in practical use fewer potential by 30-50%. Indicators that are currently recorded in Ukraine observed in Europe in 2000-2005.
The main reason for this development is the slow pace of using modern technological approaches and highly productive varieties and hybrids of seeds.
Therefore, what has long been used in Europe for Ukraine is something completely new. This is evidence of a significant shortfall in the harvest of oilseeds and points to the prospect of further development.
Analysis of the market situation for oilseeds 2013-2015 showed growth price on oilseeds. The most expensive three years is soybean (from 3650-5800 UAH/t in 2013 to 7300-9600 UAH/t in 2015), on second position is sunflower (from 2900-5000 UAH/t in 2013 to 7100- 9650 UAH/t in 2015), on third - rapeseed (from 3200-4400 UAH/t in 2013 to 6100-7500 UAH/t in 2015).
According to experts in 2015 in Ukraine will be held to further increase soybean by reducing the area under sunflower and rapeseed. In the steppe zone these changes will be slower by a factor of climatic conditions and lack of irrigation land for a sharp increase acreage soybean. Gross is expected to lower the level of the previous year due to a significant rise in the cost of material and technical means and run mode total savings entities. It is appropriately displayed on the yield and quality of the resulting product.
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