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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS

Aleksieva Desislava

         PhD, Assist. Prof

         D. A. Tsenov Academy of Economics

         Svishtov, Bulgaria

 

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS

 

Since the UN held the conference on “Environment and development” (UNISED) in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro – Brazil, the term “sustainable development” has acquired political significance in the major managerial areas: social, economic, environmental. Today scholars add the institutional area to those three.

In a report presented by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), sustainable development is defined as “development which meets the demands of the present without jeopardizing the ability of future generations to meet their own demands” [1].

Preserving the harmony between environment and man imposes overcoming the hazardous and disastrous practice of priority development of economy and its dominating role in managerial policy. Sustainable development has to do with balancing [2] the various types of aims. This imposes adopting an integrative managerial approach.

The concept of sustainable development reflects the individual’s social responsibility to him/herself and the society. It is not as obligation, but as a realized choice through integrating social and environmental issues that S. Stoyanova [3] presents responsibility.

Sustainable development is in direct relation to the state of an ecosystem. The term was coined in 1935 by A. Tansley who argued that “an ecosystem involves ‘… not only a complex of organisms, but the whole complex of physical factors which we call environment of the biome – the factors of habitat in the broadest sense” [4]. In his research the author placed the emphasis on the community. The ecosystem must not be identified with the organisms that form it; it possesses its own properties which characterize it as a new organization [5].

The sustainable development of the environment and the ecosystem as one of its components cannot be discussed separately from the remaining areas of social life. Biological diversity depends on the preservation and development of ecosystems. An ecosystem is a major unit in ecology and is discussed in system and functional aspect. The founder of system theory in ecology is E. Odum with his research “Ecology” [6]. According to him, ecosystems are placed in hierarchical dependence of living organisms (biotic components) and their physical environment (abiotic components). As an open system following the principle of emergens, the ecosystem is exposed to the influence of the components of the environment.

The trophic structure of the ecosystem is functionally dependent on:

  • Community
  • Energy
  • Substances

The sustainable development of ecosystems is in direct relation to a number of limiting factors [6]. Such are the abiotic components of the environment (biotope).

The sustainable development of the environment and the ecosystem as its component cannot be discussed separately from the remaining areas of social life.

An important moment in the functioning of the community is the employment of eco-political programs. There have been six such programs so far, and they cover five major spheres. The correct regulation of this process is supported by a number of scientific and research programs in the field of environment:

  • STEP (Science and technology for environment preservation);
  • ЕPOCH (European program for climatology and natural hazards);

Eco-political dialogue has reflected programs on international and national level. Within the framework of ecological programs, various initiatives are held.  In order for the set aims to be achieved, economic regulators are used.

 

References

  1. Комисия по околна среда, обществено здраве и безопасност на храните, Работен документ, 2012, с. 2.
  2. Каменов, К. Устойчивото развитие, В.Търново, 1996, с. 132.
  3. Асенов, А., М. Чиприянов, С. Стоянова,  Екологично управление на бизнеса, В. Търново, 2011, с. 39.
  4. Петков, Г., Б. Байков. Справочник по екология, 1985, с. 69.
  5. Манолов, М., Жейнов, К, Янакиев, В. Екология, Варна, 2007, с. 41.
  6. Одум, Ю. Экология, Москва, 1986, с. 24-35.
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