Ph.D., assistant professor, associate professor
Dnipropetrovsk National University Oles Honchar
GEOENGINEERING IS THE PATH TO VICTORY OVER GLOBAL WARMING
Global warming is a slow and gradual increase in the average temperature on our planet, which is observed at the present time. In result of dramatically increased melting of glaciers and the water level on the planet has risen by 10-25 sm. There are many factors that could cause global warming, but the main external influence:
- the changes of the Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles);
- the solar activity;
- the volcanic emissions;
- the greenhouse effect is the increase in the temperature of the lower atmosphere compared with the temperature of the thermal radiation of the planet. 
Currently there are many projects and ideas to solve this problem, the main of which is geoengineering. Geoengineering is a set of measures and impacts, aimed at actively changing climatic conditions of the Earth to counteract undesirable climate change and more comfortable living conditions in most parts of the planet.
A large part of geoengineering projects can be divided into groups:
I. Management of solar radiation. This group includes such projects as:
- The spraying of aerosols into the atmosphere, which in the stratosphere due to chemical reactions is converted into a suspension of tiny particles that reflect sunlight. But scientists at California Institute of technology (USA) found that the increase in the number of aerosols in the atmosphere will have side effects, some of which change in precipitation patterns and the weakening of the monsoon, much lighter color of the sky during the day and this will lead to the destruction of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere.
- The use of "cool roofs" on buildings and structures to reflect the sun's rays. Because white roofs reflect more high temperature of the sun than black ones, buildings with white roofs will stay cooler. And buildings with dark roofs will raise the temperature of the environment due to wind.
- The increased reflectivity of the clouds by spraying sea water into the atmosphere. From the air suspension salty droplets form clouds, capable of reflecting solar radiation. But this project may lead to changes in the rate of ocean currents and precipitation, so he will not stop the acidification of the oceans when the current emissions of carbon dioxide.
II. The decrease in the concentration of greenhouse gases. Such projects include:
- The discharge to the Global ocean iron salts to stimulate the growth of surface algae that absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But dying plankton secretes acid and covers the bottom of the toxic mass, and it's devastating impact on the ecology of the ocean.
- The gas cleaning air from pollutants. But scientists meteorological branch of the American National administration of ocean and atmosphere came to the conclusion that air pollution contributes greatly to the fight against global warming.
- The creation of biocoal. Biocoal is a worthy replacement for coal and wood-based carbon, allowing to restore the soil and slow down climate change by reducing emissions of harmful gases that pollute the air and give the greenhouse effect.
- The increase in the biomass of the soil and increase in the plant biomass in arid zones. Leonard Ornstein from medical school mount Sinai offers to plant Sugar and Australia eucalyptus that in a few years will lead to a decrease in the average temperature in Africa at 4 - 6 °C and the annual precipitation will increase by 700-1200 mm But eucalyptus multiply with great speed, destroying vegetation and fauna, and also scary oxidizes the soil, making it unsuitable for agriculture.
III. Arctic geoengineering.
Specialized geoengineering technologies when applied correctly can not only change climate, but also affect a given area. There is a series of projects aimed at reducing the rate of melting of glaciers in the Arctic.
- The spray of fresh water over the Arctic to create a powerful surface layer of ice, as sea water is less prone to freezing.
- The spraying of aerosols over the Arctic.
But at the moment there are only discussions, because most scientists are concerned about side effects.
- Глобальное потепление (Электронный ресурс) / Способ доступа: URL: http://www.0zn.ru/ekologiya/globalnoe_poteplenie_2.html.